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The Lacawac Bibliography

Follow the hyperlinks on this page to view abstracts of these papers that are written about studies conducted in or involving Lacawac Sanctuary. If you are further interested in reading these articles and cannot access the full text versions online, contact the research director Lesley Knoll at lesley.knoll@lacawac.org for further information.



Williamson, C.E., J.A. Brentrup, J. Zhang, W.H. Renwick, B.R. Hargreaves, L.B. Knoll, E.P. Overholt, and K.C. Rose. Lakes as sensors in the landscape: Optical metrics as scalable sentinel responses to climate change. Limnology and Oceanography 59: 840-850.



Byman, D., S.D. Harding, F.W. Spear. Demographic Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exclosures on White-footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus). The American Midland Naturalist 170: 171-183.

Fay, S.A., R.J. Gast, and R.W. Sanders. Linking bacterivory and phyletic diversity of protists with a marker gene survey and experimental feeding with BrdU-labeled bacteria. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 71:141-153. [doi: 10.3354/ame01674]


Heinze, A.W., C.L. Truesdale, S.B. DeVaul, J. Swinden and R.W. Sanders. The role of temperature in growth, feeding and the vertical distribution of the mixotrophic chrysophyte Dinobryon. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 71:155-163. [doi: 10.3354/ame01673]


Leff, L.G., D.L. Bade, J. Scaffidi, C.E. Williamson, C. Woolverton. Environmental Aquatic Resource Sensing: Basic science, business education, and outreach. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 150:63-71.



Klug, J.L., D.C. Richardson, H.A. Ewing, B.R. Hargreaves, N.R. Samal, D. Vachon, D.C. Pierson, A.M. Lindsey, D.M. O’Donnell, S.W. Effler, and K.C. Weathers. Ecosystem effects of a tropical cyclone on a network of lakes in northeastern North America. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 11693-11701.


Lendemer, J.C. Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania Part 2. Evansia 29: 56-60. June issue.


Rose, K.C., C.E. Williamson, J.M. Fischer, S.J. Connelly, M. Olsen, A.J. Tucker, D.A. Noe. The role of ultraviolet radiation and fish in regulating the vertical distribution of Daphnia.

Limnol. Oceanogr., 57(6), 2012, 1867–1876 [doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.6.1867]



Lendemer, J.C. Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania. Evansia 27: 47-64. June issue.

Lendemer, J.C., B.P. Hodkinson. A new perspective on Punctelia subrudecta in North America. The Lichenologist 42: 405-421.


Williamson, C.E., K.C. Rose. When UV meets fresh water. Science 329: 637-639.



Connelly, S.J., R.E. Moeller, G. Sanchez, and D.L. Mitchell. Temperature effects on survival and DNA repair in four freshwater cladoceran Daphnia species exposed to UV radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 85: 144-152.


Leech, D.M., W.J. Boeing, S.L. Cooke, C.E. Williamson, L. Torres. UV- enhanced fish predation and the differential migration of zooplankton to UV radiation and fish. Limnol. Oceanogr., 54(4), 2009, 1152-1161 | DOI: 10.4319/lo.2009.54.4.1152


Nyquist, J. E., M.J. Heaney, and L. Toran (2009) Characterizing lakebed seepage and geologic heterogeneity using underwater resistivity and temperature measurements, Near Surface Geophysics, Near Surface

Geophysics, 7(5-6) 487-498. doi: 10.3997/1873-0604.2009022.

Scott, C.E., J.E. Saros, C.E. Willamson, C.R. Salm, S.C. Peters, and D.L. Mitchell. Effects of nutrients and dissolved organic matter on the response of phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation: experimental comparison in spring versus summer. Hydrobiologia 619: 155-166.



Connelly, S.J., E.A. Wolynick, C.E. Williamson, and K.L. Jellison. Artificial UV-B and solar radiation reduce in vitro infectivity of the human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41: 7101-7106


Connelly, S.J., E.A. Wolynick, K.L. Dieter, C.E. Williamson, and K.L. Jellison. Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, or infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 7277-7282.


Heaney, M.J., J.E. Nyquist, L.E. Toran. Marine ressistivity as a tool for characterizing zones of seepage at lake Lacawac, PA. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems.



Cooke, S.L., C.E. Williamson. Positive effects of UV radiation on a calanoid copepod in a transparent lake: do competition, predation or food availability play a role. Journal of Plankton Research 28: 171-179.


Cooke, S.L., C.E. Williamson, J.E. Saros. How do temperature, dissolved organic carbon and nutrients influence the response of Leptodiaptomus ashlandi to UV radiation in a subalpine lake? Freshwater Biology 50: 467-476.


Olson, M.H., M.R. Colip, J.S. Gerlach, D.L. Mitchell. Quantifying ultraviolet radiation mortality risk in bluegill larvae: effects of nest location. Ecological Applications 16: 328-338.



Moeller, R. E., S. Gilroy, C. E. Williamson, G. Grad, R. Sommaruga. Dietary acquisition of photoprotective compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, carotenoids) and acclimation to ultraviolet radiation in a freshwater copepod. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography 50(2): 427-439.


Maloney, K.O., D.P. Morris, C.O. Moses, C.L. Osburn. The role of iron and dissolved organic carbon in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation in humic lake water. Biogeochemistry 75: 393-407.


Persaud, A.D., C.E. Williamson. Ultraviolet and temperature effects on planktonic rotifers and crustaceans in northern temperate lakes. Freshwater Biology 50: 467-476.



Boeing, W.J., D.M. Leech, C.E. Williamson, S. Cooke, L. Torres. Damaging UV radiation and invertebrate predation: conflicting selective pressures for zooplankton vertical distribution in the water column of low DOC lakes. Oecologia 138 (4): 603-612. [doi: 10.1007/s00442-003-1468-0]

Huff, D. D., G. Grad, C. E. Williamson. Environmental constraints on spawning depth of yellow perch: The roles of low temperatures and high solar ultraviolet radiation. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 718-726.


De Lange, H.J., D.P. Morris, C.E. Williamson. Solar ultraviolet photodegradation of DOC may stimulate freshwater food webs. Journal of Plankton Research 25: 111-117.


Williamson, C. E., and H. E. Zagarese. UVR effects on aquatic ecosystems: A changing climate perspective. UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems (book), chapter 17.


Townsend, D. S., J. S. Seva, S. C. Hee, and G. Mayers. Structure and composition of a northern hardwood forest exhibiting regeneration failure. Bartonia 61: 1-13.


Williamson, C. E., G. Grad, H. J. De Lange, S. Gilroy, and D. M. Karapelou. Temperature-dependent ultraviolet responses in zooplankton: Implications of climate change. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 1844-1848.



Osborn, C.L., D.P. Morris, K.A. Thorn, R.E. Moeller. Chemical and optical changes in freshwater dissolved organic matter exposed to solar radiation. Biogeochemistry 54: 251-278.


Williamson, C. E., P. J. Neale, G. Grad, H. J. De Lange, and B. R. Hargreaves. Beneficial and detrimental effects of UV radiation on aquatic organisms: implications of variation in spectral composition. Ecological Applications 11: 1843-1857.


Zagarese, H.E., C.E. Williamson. The implications of solar UV radiation exposure for fish and fisheries. Fish and fisheries 2: 250-260.



Holen D.A. The relative abundance of mixotrophic and heterotrophic ciliates in an oligotrophic lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. 150: 1-15


Leech, D. M., C. E. Williamson. Is tolerance to UV radiation in zooplankton related to body size, taxon, or lake transparency? Ecological Applications 10: 1530-1540.



Gutierrez-Rodriguez, C., C.E. Williamson. Influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on early life-history stages of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 55(3): 307-319.


Holen, D. A. Effects of prey abundance and light intensity on the mixotrophic chrysophyte Poterioochromonas malhamensis from a mesotrophic lake. Freshwater Biology 42(3): 445-455.


Stutzman, P. L. A comparative study of ultraviolet radiation tolerance in different populations of Diaptomus minutus. Journal of Plankton Research. February 21(2): 387-400.


Williamson, C. E., B. R. Hargreaves, P. S. Orr, and P. A. Lovera. Does UV play a role in changes in predation and zooplankton community structure in acidified lakes? Limnology and Oceanography 44: 774-783.


Williamson, C. E., D. P. Morris, M. L. Pace, and O. G. Olson. Dissolved organic carbon and nutrients as regulators of lake ecosystems: Resurrection of a more integrated paradigm. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 795-803.



Kodama, K. P., Lyons, J. C., Siver, P. A., and Lott, A. M. A mineral magnetic and scaled-chrysophyte paleolimnological study of two northeastern Pennsylvania lakes: Records of fly ash deposition, land-use change, and paleorainfall variation. Journal of Paleolimnology 17(2): 173-189.


Kreeger, D. A., Goulden, C. E., Kilham, S. S., Lynn, S. G., Datta, S., and Interlandi, S. J. Seasonal changes in the biochemistry of lake seston. Freshwater Biology 38(3): 539-554.


Morris, D.P., B.R. Hargreaves. The role of Photochemical Degradation of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Regulating the UV Transparency of Three Lakes on the Pocono Plateau. Limnology and Oceanography 42: 239-249.


Williamson, C. E., S. L. Metzgar, P. A. Lovera, and R. E. Moeller. Solar ultraviolet radiation and the spawning habitat of yellow perch, Perca flavescens. Ecological Applications 7: 1017-1023.



Sanders, R.W., C.E. Williamson, P.L. Stutzman. Reproductive success of herbivorous zooplankton fed algal and non algal food resources. Limnology and Oceanography 41.


Williamson, C. E. Effects of UV radiation on freshwater ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Studies 51: 245-256.


Williamson, C. E., R. S. Stemberger, D. P. Morris, T. M. Frost, and S. G. Paulsen. Ultraviolet radiation in North American lakes: attenuation estimates from DOC measurements and implications for plankton communities. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 1024-1034.


Williamson, C. E., R. W. Sanders, R. E. Moeller, and P. L. Stutzman. Utilization of subsurface food resources for zooplankton reproduction: Implications for diel vertical migration theory. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 224-233.



Moeller, R. E., C. E. Williamson, B. R. Hargreaves, D. P. Morris. Limnology of Lakes Lacawac, Giles, and Waynewood 1989-1993: An introduction to the core lakes of the Pocono Comparative Lakes Program. book.


Morris, D. P. and others. The attenuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon. Limnology and Oceanography 40: 1381-1391.


Schulze, P. C., C. E. Williamson, B. R. Hargreaves. Evaluation of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as a tool for studying the distribution and abundance of zooplankton. Journal of  Plankton Research 17: 1233-1243.


Stutzman, P. L. Food quality of gelatinous colonial chlorophytes to the freshwater zooplankters Daphnia pulicaria and Diaptomus oregonensis. Freshwater Biology 34.


Williamson, C. E. What role does UV-B radiation play in freshwater ecosystems? Limnology and Oceanography 40: 386-392.



Fairchild, G. W., A.C. Everett. Effects of nutrient nitrogen phosphorus carbon enrichment upon periphyton standing crop species composition and primary production in an oligotrophic softwater lake. Freshwater Biology 19(1): 57-70.

Kirk, J. T. O., B.R. Hargreaves, D.P. Morris, R.B. Coffin, B. David, D. Frederickson, D. Karentz, D.R.S. Lean, M.P. Lesser. Measurements of UV-B radiation in two freshwater lakes: An instrument intercomparison. Ergebnisse der Limnologie/Advances in limnology. Stuttgart. no.(43): 71-99.


Moeller, R. E. Contribution of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A, UV-B) to photoinhibition of epilimnetic phytoplankton in lakes of differing UV transparency. Ergebnisse der Limnologie/Advances in limnology. Stuttgart. no.(43): 157-170.


Siebeck, O. C.E. Williamson, and others. Impact of UV-B radiation on zooplankton and fish in pelagic freshwater ecosystems. Advances in Limnology 43: 101-114. book chapter.


Williamson, C. E., H. E. Zagarese, P. C. Schulze, B. R. Hargreaves, and J. Seva. The impact of short-term exposure to UV-B radiation on zooplankton communities in north temperate lakes. Journal of Plankton Research 16: 205-218.


Zagarese, H. E., and C. E. Williamson. Modeling the impacts of UV-B radiation on ecological interactions in freshwater and marine ecosystems. R. H. Biggs and M. E. B. Joyner [eds.], Stratospheric ozone depletion/UV-B radiation in the biosphere. NATO ASI Series. Springer-Verlag. 315-328.


Zagarese, H. E., C. E. Williamson, M. Mislivets, P. Orr. The vulnerability of Daphnia to UV-B radiation in the northeastern United States. Ergebnisse der Limnologie/Advances in limnology. Stuttgart. no.(43): 207-216.



Williamson, C.E. Linking predation risk models with behavioral mechanisms: Identifying population bottlenecks. Ecology 74: 320-331.



Berninger Ulrike, G., A. Caron David, W. Sanders Robert. Mixotrophic algae in three ice-covered lakes of the Pocono Mountains, USA. Freshwater Biology 28(2): 263-272.


Fairchild, G.W., I.W. Sherman. Linkage between epilithic algal growth and water column nutrients in softwater lakes. Can.J.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 49.


Sprules, W. G., P. C. Schulze, C. E. Williamson. Advanced techniques for in situ studies of zooplankton abundance, distribution, and behavior. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Ergebnisse der Limnologie 36: 1-140. book chapter.



Davis, A.F., G.J. Edinger, T.L. Smith, A.M. Wilkinson, J.R. Belfonti. A natural areas inventory of Wayne County, Pennsylvania.



Schoeneck, I.L., C.E. Williamson, M.E. Stoeckel. Diel periodicity and selectivity in the feeding rate of the predatory copepod Mesocyclops edax. Journal of Plankton Research 12(1): 29-40.



Fairchild, G. W., J.M. Campbell, R.L. Lowe. Numerical response of chydorids cladocera and chironomids diptera to nutrient-enhanced periphyton growth. Archiv Fuer Hydrobiologie 114(3): 369-382.


Fairchild, G. W., J.W. Sherman, F.W. Acker. Effects of nutrient (N, P, C) enrichment, grazing and depth upon littoral periphyton of a softwater lake. Hydrobiologia 173(1): 69-83.



Difonzo, C. D., J.M. Campbell. Spatial partitioning of microhabitats in littoral cladoceran communities. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4(3): 303-314.


Funk, D.H., B.W. Sweeney, R.L. Vannote. Electrophoretic study of Eastern North American Eurylophella with the discovery of morphologically cryptic species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81.



Bradt, P.T., M.B. Berq. Macrozoobenthos of three Pennsylvania lakes: responses to acidification. Hydrobiologia 150: 63-74.


Goulden, C.E., L. Henry, D. Berrigan. Egg size, postembryonic yolk, and survival ability. Oecologia. 72:28-31


Williamson, C.E. Predator-prey interactions between omnivorous diaptomid copepods and rotifers: the role of prey morphology and behavior. Limnology and Oceanography 32.


Williamson, C.E., N.M. Butler. Temperature, food and mate limitation of copepod reproductive lakes: separating the effects of multiple hypotheses. Journal of Plankton Research 9.



Siver, P. A., J.S. Chock. Phytoplankton dynamics in a chrysophycean lake. Chrysophytes: Aspects And Problems: 165-183.


Tessier, A. J. Comparative population regulation of two planktonic Cladocera (Holopedium gibberum and Daphnia catawba). Ecology 67(2): 285-302.


Tessier, A. J. Life history and body size evolution in Holopedium gibberum Zaddach (Crustacea, Cladocera). Freshwater Biology 16(2): 279-286.


Williamson, C.E. The swimming and feeding behavior of Mesocyclops. Hydrobiologia 134.



Dudley, J.L. Comparison of five Pocono Mountain forest communities. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 59.


Siver, P.A., J.S. Chock. Scaled chrysophycean algae from Pennsylvania Lake Lacawac. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 59.


Smith, B.B., C.B. Reif. The bio limnology of Bear Lake, an acid lake in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 59.



Nerozzi, A., P.A. Siver. Periphytic community analysis in a small oligotrophic lake. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 28.


Tessier, A. J. Periodicity of egg laying and egg age distributions in planktonic cladocera. Can.J.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 41.



Farrar, D.R., J.C. Parks, B.W. McAlpin. The fern genera Vittaria and Trichomanes in the Northeastern United States. RHODORA 85.


Nerozzi, A., P.A. Siver. Periphytic community analysis in a small oligotrophic lake. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 57.


Tessier, A. J. Coherence and horizontal movement of patches of Holopedium gibberum. Oecologia 60: 71-75.


Tessier, A. J., C.E. Goulden. Estimating food limitation in Cladocera populations. Limnology and Oceanography 27.



Edwards, C. The Anatomy of Daphnia Mandibles. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 99: 2-24.


Roback, S.S., K.J. Tennessen. The Immature Stages of Djalmabatista pulcher [ =Procladius (Calotanypus) pulcher (Joh.)]. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 130.



Peterson, C.H. The Paleoecological Significance Of Undetected Short-Term Temporal Variability. Journal of Paleontology 51: 976-981.



Cowgill, U.M. The chemical composition of four regions on a summer day in Lake Lacawac, Pennsylvania. International review of hydrobiology 61: 595-608.





Goulden, C.E. Environmental control of the abundance and distribution of the Chyorid Cladocera. Limnology and Oceanography 16.


Mowbray, B. History of research at Lake Lacawac. Frontiers Magazine.


Tilney, L.G. How microtubule patterns are generated. The journal of cell biology 51: 837-854.



Smith, J.W. Song-Like Displays in Sayornis Species. Behaviour 37.



Goulden, C.E. Developmental phases of the Biocoenosis. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 62.


Goulden, C.E. Interpretive studies of cladoceran microfossils in lake sediments. Mitt.Internat.Verein. Limnol. 17.


Goulden, C.E. Temporal changes in diversity. Diversity and Stability in Ecological Systems 22.